Kuwait

Ratification:

Kuwait ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on September 2, 1994.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Kuwait made reservations to the following CEDAW articles: 9:2, 16 and 29:1 as described in detail below.

  • Article 9, paragraph 2: The Government of Kuwait reserves its right not to implement the provision contained in article 9, paragraph 2, of the Convention, inasmuch as it runs counter to the Kuwaiti Nationality Act, which stipulates that a child’s nationality shall be determined by that of his father.
  • Article 16 (f): The Government of the State of Kuwait declares that it does not consider itself bound by the provision contained in article 16 (f) inasmuch as it conflicts with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah , Islam being the official religion of the State.
  • Article 29: The Government of Kuwait declares that it is not bound by the provision contained in article 29, paragraph 1.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

To date, Kuwait has submitted one official periodic report to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”). The combined first and second periodic report was released in August 2002. In response to Kuwait’s preliminary report, the Committee released comments in 2004 regarding Kuwait’s progress in implementing CEDAW as well as the areas of concerns.

A detailed account of progress expressed by the Committee following Kuwait’s report in 2002 as follows:

  • Publishing the Convention in the Official Gazette, thus giving it the force of national law.
  • Efforts made in 1999, through an Amiri Decree, to grant women their full political rights.
  • Establishing institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women, particularly the National Assembly’s standing committee on human rights, which is tasked with, inter alia, studying and proposing amendments to national legislation to guarantee and safeguard human rights.
  • Progress made in reducing the rate of female illiteracy in Kuwait, and in increasing the level of education attained by girls and women in Kuwait and the enrollment rates of girls and women at all levels of education.

A detailed account of recommendations made by the Committee following Kuwait’s report in 2002 as follows:

  • Take all necessary steps, as a matter of the utmost urgency, to introduce and actively support the adoption of legislation to amend the discriminatory provisions of the Electoral Law in line with the constitutional guarantee of equality and in order to ensure compliance with the Convention.
  • Expedite the necessary steps for the withdrawal of its reservation to article 7 (a) of the Convention, which it believes to be contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention.
  • Expedite the necessary steps for the withdrawal of its reservations to article 9, paragraph 2, and article 16 (f) of the Convention.
  • Provide, in its next report, comprehensive information on the effect of its reservations on the implementation of the provisions of the Convention and the situation of women in Kuwait, and in this regard, draws attention to its statement on reservations.
  • Ensure the primacy, direct applicability and enforceability of the Convention within the national legal framework of Kuwait, and launch a comprehensive program of dissemination, education and training on the Convention, in particular for government officials and legislators, as well as judicial officers, including law enforcement officials and the judiciary, and for civil society and the public at large with a view to ensuring that the provisions of the Convention are known and implemented in Kuwait.
  • Take urgent steps to incorporate the definition of discrimination against women as contained in article 1 of the Convention in its national legislation.
  • Undertake a comprehensive review of all existing laws, including the Nationality Act, and to amend or repeal discriminatory provisions so as to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Convention.
  • Raise the minimum age of marriage for women and men to 18 years, in line with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Clarify, in its next report, the mandate and responsibilities of the various components of the national machinery, coordination among them, and the resources allocated to them, and ensure that the national machinery involves more women at the decision-making level and is provided with adequate visibility, power and resources to effectively promote the advancement of women.
  • Develop, adopt and implement, at the national level, a comprehensive and coordinated plan of action to promote gender equality and to ensure gender mainstreaming at all levels and in all areas.
  • Design, implement and strengthen comprehensive awareness-raising measures to foster a better understanding of equality between women and men, at all levels of society, with a view to eradicating traditional stereotypes regarding the role and responsibilities of women and men in the family and society, and encourage the media to promote cultural changes with regard to the roles and responsibilities attributed to women and men, as required by article 5 of the Convention.
  • Increase its efforts towards accelerating the achievement of de facto equal opportunities for women and men in the area of employment through, inter alia, the use of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, and general recommendation 25.
  • Take measures to promote change concerning the stereotypical expectations of women’s roles and to promote the equal sharing of domestic and family responsibilities between women and men.
  • Provide detailed information and statistical data on women’s representation, particularly in decision-making positions, in various areas of public life, including in law enforcement, the judiciary and the diplomatic corps in its next report.
  • Take measures to increase the representation of women in all areas of public life, including at the decision-making level, and in law enforcement, the judiciary and the diplomatic corps, through the use of temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, and general recommendation 25, as well as general recommendation 23, and undertake and support awareness-raising programs on the importance of women’s representation, in particular at decision-making levels, in all areas of public life.
  • Provide, in its next report, detailed information and statistical data on the situation of non-Kuwaiti women, in particular with regard to education, health and employment as well as information about the availability of services and programs for protecting women domestic migrant workers from violence and abuse and the availability of legal and administrative remedies, and on steps taken to inform women migrant workers about the availability of such services and remedies.
  • Recognize that violence against women constitutes a violation of the human rights of women under the Convention.
  • Undertake the systematic collection of sex-disaggregated data on all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence, as well as research into the extent and root causes of such violence, including against women migrant workers and non-Kuwaiti women, and to provide such information in its next report.
  • In the light of general recommendation 19, ensure that all forms of violence against women and girls are prosecuted and punished promptly and that victims have immediate means of redress and protection, and take measures to fully sensitize public officials, especially law enforcement officials, the judiciary and health-care providers, and to train them to handle such situations adequately, and undertake awareness-raising measures aimed at the public at large to make such violence socially and morally unacceptable.
  • Enhance collaboration and coordination with civil society organizations, in particular women’s associations, to strengthen implementation of the provisions of the Convention, and to engage in consultations with such organizations when preparing its next report.
  • Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention and to accept, as soon as possible, the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention, concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
  • Respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding comments in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention, and submit its third periodic report, which was due in 2003, and its fourth periodic report, due in 2007, in a combined report in 2007.
  • Include in its next periodic report, information on the implementation of aspects of those documents relating to relevant articles of the Convention.
  • Disseminate widely in Kuwait of the present concluding comments in order to make the people, in particular government administrators and politicians, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women, as well as the further steps that are required in this regard.
  • Continue to disseminate widely, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Convention, its Optional Protocol, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, no shadow report has been submitted regarding the implementation of CEDAW in Kuwait.

Recent Updates:

Over the past several decades, Kuwait has made significant progress towards improving the status of women and ensuring gender equality. Women have opportunities to pursue higher education, and currently comprise two-thirds of university-level students. In addition, women’s presence in the work force has increased steadily and should continue in the future, despite laws limiting women’s work. One law prohibits most women from working between the hours of 8 p.m. and 7 a.m. and another prohibits women from working jobs that may be dangerous, difficult or harmful to health. The law prevents women from engaging in “immoral” occupations that exploit their bodies, and prohibits women from working for institutions that provide services only to men.

On May 16, 2005, the Parliament approved an amendment that gives women full political rights, including electoral rights. Following this decision, two women ran for municipal council elections, where they were defeated by their male candidates and a weak 28.7% of eligible female voters actually participated in the election. There are many opponents to women’s suffrage, primarily by Islamic and traditional leaders who argue that women’s exposure to public life by voting will lead to their moral decline.

Currently, women hold many positions in government, and have made recent advances at the top levels of leadership. In 2005, the first female was appointed as Minister of Planning and Administrative Development; she was later appointed as Minister of Health in the Cabinet in 2007. Another female was appointed as Minister of Education and Higher Studies in the same cabinet, and in 2005, two women were appointed to the 16-member municipal council.

The Federation of Kuwaiti Women’s Associations and the Women’s Cultural and Social Society are the two most prominent women’s groups in Kuwait. The Federation is tightly regulated by the Kuwaiti government, and is the only group allowed to represent Kuwait on the international level. The Society was initially a charity organization, but has become an active advocate for women’s rights. Many other organizations such as the Women Affairs Committee and the Kuwait’s Union of Women Societies have organized campaigns and conferences to protest the exclusion of women in the political arena.

Despite Kuwait’s ratification of CEDAW, women face certain legal inequalities, largely related to the personal status law. Under this law, women face discrimination in terms of testimony, nationality, divorce and inheritance. Despite its initial reservation to article 7, which relates to the authority of the international dispute resolution mechanisms created by the CEDAW, the Government of Kuwait informed the Secretary-General, by a notification received on 9 December 2005, of its decision to withdraw the following reservation in respect of article 7 (a), made upon accession to the Convention, which read as follows: The Government of Kuwait enters a reservation regarding article 7 (a), inasmuch as the provision contained in that paragraph conflicts with the Kuwaiti Electoral Act, under which the right to be eligible for election and to vote is restricted to males.var 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Jordan

Ratification:

Jordan ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on July 1, 1992.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Jordan made reservations to the following CEDAW articles: 9:2, 15:4 and 16 as described in detail below.

  • Article 9, paragraph 2;
  • Article 15, paragraph 4 (a wife’s residence is with her husband);
  • Article 16, paragraph (1) (c), relating to the rights arising upon the dissolution of marriage with regard to maintenance and compensation;
  • Article 16, paragraph (1) (d) and (g).

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

To date, Jordan has submitted official periodic reports to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”) on three occasions. The first report came out five years following ratification in October 1997, the second report in November 1999, and the combined third and fourth report was released in December 2005.

In response to the most recent report, the Committee released comments in August 2007 regarding Jordan’s progress in implementing CEDAW as well as the areas of concerns.  The Committee expressed appreciation to Jordan for its combined third and fourth periodic report, which was well-structured, though it lacked references to the Committee’s general recommendations. The Committee commended Jordan for its high-level delegation as well as its written replies to the issues raised by the pre-session working group. The Committee welcomed Jordan’s initiative to develop proposals to amend laws and institute measures to end discriminatory practices against women.

A detailed account of progress expressed by the Committee following Jordan’s report in 2005 as follows:

  • Publishing the Convention in the Official Gazette, which gives it the force of law in Jordan.
  • Establishment of a 20 percent quota for women in the municipal councils, which has led to the election of 240 women to municipal councils, and on the appointment of the first female head of a court.
  • Achievement of parity between girls and boys in primary and secondary education.

A detailed account of recommendations made by the Committee following Jordan’s report in 2005 as follows:

  • Take adequate steps to implement the recommendations in respect of some concerns raised in the Committee’s previous concluding comments, in particular In particular, its recommendations in paragraphs 169 (to encourage a constitutional amendment to incorporate equality on the basis of sex in article 6 of the Constitution), 171 (to undertake a review of all existing legislation to bring it fully into compliance with the Convention), 175 (to reconsider the law and policy on polygamy with a view to eliminating that practice), 181 (to initiate legislative action to permit safe abortion for victims of rape and incest) and 185 (to review legislation and policy in the employment sector to facilitate full implementation of article 11 of the Convention).
  • Speedily withdraw its reservation to article 15, paragraph 4, which it acknowledges has become redundant in the light of legal reform. It also urges the State party to recognize the negative impact of its nationality law on Jordanian women married to foreigners and on the children of those women and, accordingly, to revise its nationality law and remove its reservation to article 9, paragraph.
  • Revise its Personal Status Act, in the light of comparative jurisprudence where more progressive interpretations of Islamic law have been codified in legislative reforms, to give women equal rights in marriage, divorce and custody of children and to withdraw its reservations to article 16, paragraph 1 (c), (d) and (g).
  • Enact a comprehensive gender equality law that extends to both the public and private sectors and to political, economic, social, cultural, civil and any other fields, and includes a definition of discrimination against women in line with article 1 of the Convention; provisions on the equal rights of women with men in line with article 2 (a) of the Convention; and sanctions and remedies for acts of discrimination based on sex.
  • Ensure that the Convention becomes an integral part of legal education and, in this regard, develop awareness-raising programs and training on the provisions of the Convention for judges, lawyers and prosecutors, in particular with regard to the meaning and scope of direct and indirect discrimination and about formal and substantive equality, in order to establish firmly in the country a legal culture supportive of women’s equality and non-discrimination.
  • Enhance women’s awareness of their rights through on-going legal literacy programs and legal assistance, and disseminate the Convention and its general recommendations widely among all stakeholders, including government ministries, parliamentarians, the judiciary, political parties, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and the general public.
  • Complete expeditiously the process of strengthening and restructuring its national machinery so that it can fully execute all its functions, and to provide in its next report, a clear and detailed picture of the national machinery, including its authority, functions, powers and resources.
  • Give high priority to its law reform process and to modify or repeal, without delay and within a clear time frame, discriminatory legislation, including discriminatory provisions in its Personal Status Act, Penal Code and Nationality Act and, to this end, increase its efforts to sensitize the Parliament and public opinion regarding the importance of accelerating legal reform which, according to article 2 of the Convention, has to be undertaken without delay.
  • Take all steps necessary to increase support for law reform, including through proactive outreach to Parliament, and partnerships and collaboration with religious and community leaders, lawyers, judges, civil society organizations and women’s non-governmental organizations.
  • View culture as a dynamic aspect of the country’s social fabric and life and therefore subject to change, and implement comprehensive measures to bring about change in the widely accepted stereotypical roles of men and women in order to create an enabling and supportive environment conducive to changing discriminatory laws, customs and practices and strengthening women’s ability to enjoy all their human rights. This should include awareness-raising and programs in the formal and non-formal educational sector, addressing women and men, girls and boys, community and religious leaders and, in particular, members of Parliament, with a view to eliminating stereotypes associated with traditional gender roles in the family and in society, in accordance with articles 2 (f) and 5 (a) of the Convention. It should closely monitor the impact of, and results achieved from, its efforts to promote change concerning the stereotypical expectations of women’s roles in the family and society.
  • Give high priority to putting in place comprehensive measures to address all forms of violence against women and girls, recognizing that violence against women is a form of discrimination against women and thus constitutes a violation of their human rights under the Convention.
  • Enact as soon as possible, legislation on violence against women, including the draft law on protection against domestic violence, in order to ensure that violence against women constitutes a criminal offence, that women and girls who are victims of violence have access to immediate means of redress and protection and that perpetrators are prosecuted and punished.
  • Implement educational and awareness-raising measures aimed at law enforcement officials, the judiciary, health-care providers, social workers, community leaders and the general public, in order to ensure that they understand that all forms of violence against women are unacceptable, and make full use of the information contained in the Secretary-General’s in-depth study on all forms of violence against women.
  • Amend, without delay, applicable provisions of the Penal Code to ensure that perpetrators of “honor” crimes do not benefit from a reduction of penalty under article 340; that perpetrators of premeditated “honor” crimes do not benefit from a reduction of penalty under article 98; and that article 99 is not applicable to “honor” crimes or other cases where the victim is related to the perpetrator, and ensure that “honor” crimes are treated as seriously as other violent crimes in regard to investigation and prosecution, and that effective prevention efforts are put in place.
  • Ensure that a rapist does not escape punishment by marrying his victim, and eliminate the use of virginity tests or ensure that such tests are carried out only with the full and free consent of the woman and the results are not used to her detriment.
  • Establish a sufficient number of accessible shelters and crisis centers for female victims of violence in both urban and rural areas, and ensure that if a victimized woman agrees to reconcile with the perpetrator, counseling services are provided to the perpetrator and the situation monitored to prevent further abuse.
  • Replace the practice of protective custody with other measures that ensure the protection of women without jeopardizing their liberty, and to accordingly transfer all women currently held in protective custody to the Family Reconciliation Centre or other safe shelters.
  • Take sustained measures, including temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendations 23 and 25, and to establish concrete goals and time frames in order to accelerate the increase in the representation of women in elected and appointed bodies in all areas and at all levels of public life.
  • Consider amending the Elections Act before the parliamentary elections scheduled for November 2007 in order to institute a significantly higher quota for women, as recommended by the Jordanian National Commission for Women.
  • Encourage political parties to use quotas or numerical goals in order to accelerate women’s equal representation, and conduct training programs on leadership and negotiation skills for current and future women leaders, and undertake awareness-raising, including for all members of Parliament, about the importance of women’s participation in decision-making for society as a whole.
  • Strengthen its efforts to increase the number of women university professors in all fields, including through the use of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation
  • Enhance its human rights education in curricula at all educational levels and to ensure that such education places priority on the promotion of gender equality and women’s human rights.
  • Amend its Labor Code to prohibit discrimination against women as well as sexual harassment in both public and private sector employment and include mechanisms for redress of complaints of discrimination and sexual harassment, and ensure that there is no discrimination in terms of employment-related benefits and that female employees receive all the same benefits on the same terms as male employees.
  • Monitor adherence to the amended Labor Code by employers in both sectors to ensure compliance with such provisions, and take all measures necessary to eliminate discrimination against women in the private sector, in accordance with article 2 (e) of the Convention, and establish adequate and sufficient day-care centers in order to facilitate women’s entry into the labor force.
  • Speed up the law reform effort to ensure that the employment of domestic workers, including migrants, is covered by the Labor Code, and monitor effectively and enforce regulations relating to the employment of domestic workers, including migrants, for their benefit.
  • Eliminate the provision in article 5 of the Personal Status Act that allows marriage of a person under 18 years and to enforce the 18-years minimum age of marriage for both women and men, in line with article 16, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Committee’s general recommendation 21 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Ensure that civil society organizations and women’s non-governmental organizations are not restricted with respect to their establishment and operations and that they are able to function independently of the Government, and provide an enabling environment for the establishment and active involvement of women’s and human rights organizations in promoting the implementation of the Convention.
  • Include in its next report statistical data and analysis on the situation of women, disaggregated by sex, age and by rural and urban areas, indicating the impact of measures taken and the results achieved in the practical realization of women’s substantive equality.
  • Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
  • Ensure the wide participation of all ministries and public bodies in, and to consult with non-governmental organizations during, the preparation of its next report, and involve Parliament in a discussion of the report before its submission to the Committee.
  • Utilize fully in its implementation of the obligations under the Convention, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, which reinforce the provisions of the Convention, and include information thereon in its next periodic report.
  • Integrate a gender perspective and the explicit reflection of the provisions of the Convention in all efforts aimed at the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and include information thereon in its next periodic report.
  • Disseminate widely in Jordan the present concluding comments in order to make the people of Jordan, including government officials, politicians, parliamentarians, the judiciary and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women, as well as the further steps that are required in that regard.
  • Continue to disseminate widely, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Convention, the Optional Protocol thereto, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.
  • Respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding comments in its next periodic report under article 18 of the Convention, which is due in July 2009.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, two shadow reports have been submitted regarding the progress of the implementation of CEDAW in Jordan. The first ever shadow report was submitted in July 2007 by a delegation of NGOs organized by the Karama Group of Jordan, including the Arab Women Organization of Jordan, the Arab Human Rights Organization, and the Arab Women Media centre. This shadow report detailed the government’s areas of non-compliance and recommends policies to improve Jordan’s protection of women’s legal rights and safety from violence. Violence against women remains one of the biggest challenges that the government faces today.

The shadow report noted that although the government published CEDAW in the National Gazette, it was not done until 15 years after the ratification. In order to bring national law in line with putting CEDAW into practice, Karama recommended that the government do the following:

  • First, lift all remaining reservations to the CEDAW articles, and ensure women’s equality under the law to be able to pass her nationality to her spouse and children, as men are currently entitled to do.
  • Second, adopt a National Strategy to end violence against women, enacting new laws in the Penal Code that criminalize VAW and punish perpetrators not women. Specifically, stop the jailing of women for their “protection” when their lives have been threatened by family members, and secure these women a place at the national shelter-which should expand to multiple shelters.
  • Third, enact and develop enforcement of legislation to prohibit sexual assault in the workplace and gender-based discrimination at all levels of employment and benefits. Extend the labor law’s protection and benefits to include informal sectors where women are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse: as domestic workers; gardeners; cooks; or as family members in a family business who work without receiving pay.
  • Fourth, amend Article 6 Paragraph 1 of the Constitution, which indicates that all Jordanians are equal before the law and there is no discrimination between them, to specify equality according to “sex” alongside “language,” “religion,” and “race.”
  • Fifth, Government should amend the Jordanian Personal Status Law to remove articles that do not ensure women’s equal rights with men within marriage.
  • Sixth, the Government has yet to ensure equality in political participation. A quota of just six women out of 110 was filled in the previous election of the parliament. The government needs to undertake new policies and measures to ensure better participation of women in political and public life. A quota of at least 30% should be adopted at all decision making levels.

The Government’s response to the shadow report was positive, assuring to the CEDAW committee that it is in the process of developing new laws, including a law that criminalizes domestic violence and a law that ensure non-discrimination against women at all levels. At the time, it was predicted that it will take two years to finalize these laws.

A parallel shadow report prepared by the Human Forum for Women’s Rights and the MIZAN-Law Group for Human Rights was submitted in July 2007.

Recent Updates:

Under the personal status laws in Jordan, women suffer from discrimination in many areas, particularly in regards to testimony, divorce, freedom of movement, inheritance. Although women have the right to vote and consistently have a high turnout at elections, women remain largely excluded from the government itself. There is currently one female minister, three female senators and six female members of parliament. The current age of marriage for both men and women is 18, and Jordanian women married to non-Jordanian men do have the right to pass on Jordanian citizenship to their children.

Between 2001 and 2003, while the Parliament was not in session, the government amended two bills relating to women’s rights: the first allowed women the right to file for divorce and the second afforded the courts more leeway to impose harsh punishments on those convicted of honor crimes.

The government recently created the National Committee for Women to oversee programs related to women’s development. This Committee has been successful in lowering the female illiteracy rate and encouraging women to pursue university-level education. Although population growth has declined, the total fertility rate is higher than the regional average. There has been public support among religious leaders and communities to reduce family size, and contraceptive use has increased substantially over the past decade.

In addition, there are many advocates of women’s rights in the government, most notably Queen Rania and Princess Basma. Each has supported women’s development through projects and social reform. Since King Abdullah took power in 1999, the government has shown a significant interest in improving the overall status of women in Jordan.

On February 10, 2009, Jordan lifted its reservation on Article 15, paragraph 4, of the Convention, which relates to women’s mobility.

On February 15, 2009, the United Press reported on the progress of eliminating family violence after the government passed the Protection Against Family Violence law in 2008. Although the National Family Council prepared a four-year strategic plan, there are still approximately 5,000 cases registered each year. The National Council for Women’s Affairs in Jordan announced that it is preparing to hold a conference that aims to develop an “Arab Network for Family Protection”, which would adopt a mechanism for cooperation among stakeholders, setting policies and preparing international reports.

A recent project, which will be coordinated by the Italian Consortium of Solidarity along with the European Institute of Democracy and Human Rights and MIZAN-Law Group for Human Rights, will work to promote the effective application of CEDAW. This program will provide training courses for judges and lawyers, promote direct information campaigns to target women, and offer mobile units that will travel to encourage victims of domestic violence to report their situation. Honor crimes prove the greatest challenge, because the perpetrator often walks away with a modest sentence, and judges grant extenuating circumstances to men who are believed to have been motivated by honor, despite the fact they are guilty of homicide. For this reason, the new program will provide necessary training for judges and prosecutors in the legal principals upheld by the Convention. But the main focus of the project will be the lawyers, who have the most contact with society and are best able to spread a new culture of rights.

On March 10, 2009, Al-Sharq reported that the Jordanian Minister of Justice expected that female judges will constitute 40% of judges in Jordan in the next decade. Women currently make up 50% of the participants in the programs “Judges of the Future” and “Diploma in Judicial Studies”. It was noted that the Ministry of Justice is currently writing a new law, which would enhance the independence of the public prosecutor’s office and engage female judges in public prosecution. These efforts are a part of the capacity building programs for females in the legal profession, which the Ministry of Justice supports.

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Iraq

Ratification:

Iraq ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on August 13, 1986.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Iraq made the following reservations:

  • Approval of and accession to this Convention shall not mean that the Republic of Iraq is bound by the provisions of article 2, paragraphs (f) and (g), of article 9, paragraphs 1 and 2, nor of article 16 of the Convention. The reservation to this last-mentioned article shall be without prejudice to the provisions of the Islamic Shariah according women rights equivalent to the rights of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. Iraq also enters a reservation to article 29, paragraph 1, of this Convention with regard to the principle of international arbitration in connection with the interpretation or application of this Convention.
  • This approval in no way implies recognition of or entry into any relations with Israel.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

Since its ratification of CEDAW in 1986, Iraq has submitted official reports to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”) on two occasions. The first periodic report was submitted in May 1990 and the combined second and third reports were submitted on in October 1998.

In response to the most recent report, the Committee released comments in January 2000 regarding Iraq’s progress in implementing CEDAW as well as the areas of concerns. The Committee expressed appreciation for Iraq’s submission of written replies to the Committee’s questions and its willingness to continue constructive dialogue with the Committee despite the difficult situation faced by the country.

A detailed account of progress expressed by the Committee following Iraq’s report in 1998 as follows:

  • Implemented legislative reforms, in particular with regard to the Personal Status Code, which brought about a greater degree of women’s equality with men, and the Penal Code, which now provides greater protection to women.
  • Adoption, in June 1997, a National Strategy for the Advancement of Women in implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action.
  • The establishment, in June 1997, of the high-level National Committee for the Advancement of Iraqi Women, the agency concerned with the advancement of women and consisting of representatives of ministries involved in activities of relevance to women, and of the General Federation of Iraqi Women, all of which are aimed at implementing the Convention.

A detailed account of recommendations made by the Committee following Iraq’s report in 1998 as follows:

  • Review discriminatory legislative provisions and to take measures, including temporary special measures, aimed at creating a non-discriminatory legislative and de facto environment for women.
  • Encourage a constitutional amendment which reflects fully article 1 of the Convention, and undertake a comprehensive legislative review with a view to bringing all legislation into full conformity with the Convention.
  • Put in place a mechanism to provide for the regular evaluation and qualitative and quantitative assessment of progress in the implementation of the national strategy for the advancement of women, as well as provide further information on the mandate, annual work plans and major areas of activity of the National Committee for the Advancement of Women in its next report.
  • Review its reservations to article 2, subparagraphs (f) and (g), and articles 9 and 16, in the light of the Committee’s statement on reservations, assess the justifications for those reservations and modify or withdraw them as soon as possible to ensure full implementation of the Convention.
  • Provide, in its next report a comprehensive picture with regard to violence against women in the State party, including information on legislation, statistical data on the types and incidence of violence against women and the responses to such violence by law enforcement officials, the judiciary, social workers and health-care providers.
  • Encourage and support the establishment of facilities for women victims of domestic violence, such as telephone hotlines and shelters for battered women, and to launch a zero-tolerance campaign on violence against women so as to raise awareness about the problem and the need to combat it effectively.
  • Implement awareness-raising campaigns to change stereotypical and discriminatory attitudes concerning the roles of women and girls, in addition to providing a non-discriminatory legislative basis.
  • Work towards the elimination of the practice of polygamy, in light of the Committee’s general recommendation 21 on marriage and family relations, and ensure that gender-sensitive public education campaigns at all levels create a non-discriminatory environment.
  • Condemn and eradicate honor killings and ensure that these crimes are prosecuted and punished in the same way as other homicides.
  • Introduce measures in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, and especially to increase the number of women in the political sphere.
  • Strengthen efforts to eradicate illiteracy and to ensure primary and secondary education for girls by preventing school dropouts, and furthermore, broaden the educational and training opportunities for girls and young women at the secondary and tertiary levels and in technical fields.
  • Give particular attention to ensuring that girls and women have equal access to new specializations, including the opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge to participate on a basis of equality with men in the labor market and in the future reconstruction of the country.
  • Ensure that women do not bear a disproportionate portion of the economic difficulties facing the country, and make sure that non-discriminatory labor legislation is in place and effectively enforced and that women’s reproductive function does not lead to discrimination against them in employment, job security and social benefits.
  • Assess the differential impact of sanctions on women and children, especially on particularly vulnerable groups of women, and to put in place measures aimed at countering such a negative impact.
  • Use resources available from programs such as the oil-for-food program in a manner that directly benefits women, including through diverting resources currently allocated for other purposes.
  • Put in place mechanisms to provide the greatest possible protection of women’s health rights, and ensure that women and children are effectively targeted so as to benefit from available resources and that such resources are not diverted to other purposes.
  • Take a holistic view of women’s health, in line with the Committee’s general recommendation 24 relating to article 12 of the Convention, and to put in place measures to ensure women’s mental and psychological well-being.
  • Provide in its next report a comprehensive picture of the situation of rural women, in particular their educational, health and employment situation, and the impact of traditions and stereotypes on their status.
  • Address the situation of disadvantaged groups of women, especially women belonging to ethnic minorities, including Kurds, Turkmens and Assyrians.
  • Respond in its next periodic report to the specific issues raised in the present concluding comments, and provide information about the mandate, functions and activities of the Human Rights Commission established within the National Assembly with regard to women’s enjoyment of their human rights. It also requests that the Government engage in a broad consultative process with women’s non-governmental organizations, including those that represent minority women, when preparing its next report.
  • Disseminate widely in Iraq the present concluding comments, in order to make the people of Iraq, and particularly government administrators and politicians, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality for women and the future steps that are required in that regard.
  • Continue to disseminate widely, and in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Convention and its Optional Protocol, the Committee’s general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the results of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, no shadow report has been submitted regarding the progress of the implementation of CEDAW in Iraq.

Recent Updates:

On January 28, 2009, Reuters reported that, according to the Higher Independent Commission of Iraqi Elections, a total of 3,912 women had been nominated for seats in the Councils of Governorates, of which 25% are allocated to women by law.

On February 7, 2009, Al-Sharq reported that Nawal Al-Samera’i, the Iraqi Miniser of State for Women’s Affairs, had announced her resignation. Mrs. Al-Samera’I, frustrated with the Ministry’s inability to actively assist women, removed herself in protest to the Iraqi government stating that they do not need an “honorary” ministry, but rather one that serves women in all areas of life. She specifically noted the inappropriate condition in which Iraqi women are detained and imprisoned.

On February 20, 2009, the Iraqi National News Agency reported that women had won 110 out of a total of 440 seats on the Councils of 14 governorates. Women won at least one-quarter of the seats in Baghdad, Ninawa, Wasit, Diyala and Najaf.

On March 19, 2009, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq announced the conference “Still Paying the Price, Iraqi Women after Years of Wars, Sanctions and Internal Conflict” on strategies to promote women’s rights in Iraq. The conference will produce a series of recommendations to Iraq’s Government and Parliament on issues restraining women’s equality in Iraq. 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Egypt

Ratification:

Egypt ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on September 18, 1981.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Egypt made reservations to the following CEDAW articles: 2, 9:2, 16, and 29 as described in detail below.

  • In respect of article 9: Reservation to the text of article 9, paragraph 2, concerning the granting to women of equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children, without prejudice to the acquisition by a child born of a marriage of the nationality of his father. This is in order to prevent a child’s acquisition of two nationalities where his parents are of different nationalities, since this may be prejudicial to his future. It is clear that the child’s acquisition of his father’s nationality is the procedure most suitable for the child and that this does not infringe upon the principle of equality between men and women, since it is customary for a woman to agree, upon marrying an alien, that her children shall be of the father’s nationality.
  • In respect of article 16: Reservation to the text of article 16 concerning the equality of men and women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations during the marriage and upon its dissolution, without prejudice to the Islamic Sharia’s provisions whereby women are accorded rights equivalent to those of their spouses so as to ensure a just balance between them. This is out of respect for the sacrosanct nature of the firm religious beliefs which govern marital relations in Egypt and which may not be called in question and in view of the fact that one of the most important bases of these relations is an equivalency of rights and duties so as to ensure complementary which guarantees true equality between the spouses. The provisions of the Sharia lay down that the husband shall pay bridal money to the wife and maintain her fully and shall also make a payment to her upon divorce, whereas the wife retains full rights over her property and is not obliged to spend anything on her keep. The Sharia therefore restricts the wife’s rights to divorce by making it contingent on a judge’s ruling, whereas no such restriction is laid down in the case of the husband.
  • In respect of article 29: The Egyptian delegation also maintains the reservation contained in article 29, paragraph 2, concerning the right of a State signatory to the Convention to declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of that article concerning the submission to an arbitral body of any dispute which may arise between States concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention. This is in order to avoid being bound by the system of arbitration in this field.
  • General reservation on article 2: The Arab Republic of Egypt is willing to comply with the content of this article, provided that such compliance does not run counter to the Islamic Sharia.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

Since its ratification of CEDAW in 1981, Egypt has submitted official reports to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”) on five occasions. The first periodic report was submitted in February 1983 and the most recent report was submitted in March 2000.

In response to the most recent report, the Committee released comments in January 2001 regarding Egypt’s progress in implementing CEDAW as well as the areas of concerns. The Committee expressed gratitude towards Egypt for its comprehensive responses to the questions of the Committee’s pre-session working group, as well as its high-level and large delegation. The open dialogue between the delegation and the Committee was also appreciated.

A detailed account of progress expressed by the Committee following Egypt’s report in 2000 as follows:

  • The establishment of the National Council for Women is mandated to monitor laws and policies affecting women’s lives, raise awareness and monitor the implementation of the Convention. The Committee commends the fact that non-governmental organizations are represented in the Council and that they participated in the preparation of the reports.
  • Introduction of legal reforms aimed at the elimination of discrimination against women, particularly LawNo. 1 of 2000, which gives women a right to terminate a marriage unilaterally.
  • Reduction of female illiteracy rates obtained by implementing special programs and specific budgetary allocations.

A detailed account of recommendations made by the Committee following Egypt’s report in 2000 as follows:

  • Expedite the steps necessary for the withdrawal of its reservations and in that regard draws its attention to the Committee’s statement on reservations in its report.
  • Consider a revision of Law No. 1 of 2000, in order to eliminate financial discrimination against women.
  • Revise the legislation governing nationality in order to make it consistent with the provisions of the Convention.
  • Increase awareness-raising programs, including those specifically directed towards men, and to take measures to change stereotypical attitudes and perceptions about the roles and responsibilities of women and men.
  • Support the important role of the media in changing stereotypical attitudes towards women and in promoting equality between men and women as prescribed by the Constitution and international standards.
  • Create opportunities for the portrayal of positive, non-traditional images of women and that the number of women in decision-making positions in the media, and establish a monitoring body on the representation of women in the media.
  • Address the multidimensional and cross-cutting nature of HIV/AIDS, including its human rights, economic, social, development and security dimensions.
  • Strengthen its efforts to eradicate female illiteracy, in particular in the rural areas, and continue its programs to prevent drop-outs by girls in primary education, and to reduce the drop-out rate of girls and young women at secondary school and university, including through the use of incentives for parents, so as to provide young women with the necessary skills and knowledge to participate on the basis of equality with men in the labor market.
  • Increase the number of women at all levels of decision-making, including in government and Parliament.
  • Implement temporary special measures, such as numerical goals and quotas connected to time frames, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention, in order to increase the representation of women at decision-making levels in all areas.
  • Provide more information on the participation and conditions of women in the labor market in its next periodic report.
  • Conduct a national survey of the extent of violence against women, including rural women.
  • Assess the impact of existing measures to address the various forms of violence against women, and investigate the root causes of violence against women, especially domestic violence, so as to improve the effectiveness of legislation, policies and programs aimed at combating such violence.
  • Implement training and sensitization programs for the judiciary, law-enforcement officials and members of the legal and health professions, as well as awareness-raising measures to create zero tolerance in society with regard to violence against women.
  • Eliminate any discriminatory penal provisions, in accordance with the Constitution and the Convention.
  • Provide full details on the implementation of the Minister of Health’s 1996 Decree on female genital mutilation in its next report, including on public awareness-raising campaigns run by all actors (ministries, the National Council for Women and non-governmental organizations) and on measures that have been taken to educate those whose livelihood depends on performing such procedures.
  • Provide in its next periodic report a comprehensive picture of the situation of rural women, in particular with regard to education, health and employment.
  • Monitor existing programs and develop additional policies and programs aimed at the economic empowerment of rural women, ensuring their access to productive resources and capital as well as to health-care services and to social and cultural opportunities.
  • Amend the law on the legal age of marriage to prevent early marriage, in line with its obligations as a State party to the Convention.
  • Take measures to prevent the practice of polygamy in accordance with the provisions of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 21.9
  • Sign and ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention and to deposit, as soon as possible, its instrument of acceptance of the amendment to article 20, paragraph 1, of the Convention, concerning the meeting time of the Committee.
  • Respond to the concerns expressed in the present concluding comments in its next periodic report submitted under article 18 of the Convention.
  • Disseminate widely the Committee’s concluding comments in order to make the people of Egypt, in particular governmental administrators and politicians, aware of the steps that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality for women and of the future steps that are required in this regard.
  • Continue to disseminate widely, in particular to women’s and human rights organizations, the Convention and its Optional Protocol, the Committee’s

general recommendations, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the results of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, one shadow report has been submitted regarding the progress of the implementation of CEDAW in Egypt. This report was presented by the Egyptian NGO’s Coalition in 2000. The report focused mainly on tracking all kinds of discrimination against women whether in legislation, politics, or social practices.

The Coalition also prepared a preliminary report of critical issues to be presented to the Committee in November 2008. This report outlined the three main issues, which have a negative impact on the social, cultural, economic and political status of Egyptian women: a low representation of women in decision-making positions, especially in national Parliament and assemblies; discrimination against women in the Family Law Code; gender-based violence in both the private and public spheres.

Recent Updates:

Many women’s NGO’s in Egypt work constantly to improve women’s rights and access to justice. Among them are the Integrated Care Society; Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights (“ECWR”); Center for Egyptian Women’s Legal Assistance; Society of Women Promotion and Development; and Forum of Organizations of Women Development. Women in Egypt suffer from discrimination in many sectors, most notably in the public sector (where women make up only 24% of the workforce) and under customary law, where women have no legal protection in the courts.

In May 2008, the ECWR reported that Egyptian and foreign women constantly suffer sexual harassment. In honor of International Women’s Day, a campaign was launched by detectives in Cairo and security officials in Giza to reveal cases of sexual harassment. A similar campaign was launched to monitor the area around Al-Monofya University and colleges in New Shibyn, where many men were caught harassing women.

In October 2008, the ECWR hosted a roundtable discussion regarding sexual harassment, during which three drafts of a new sexual harassment law were produced. Each of the laws defined sexual harassment as a legally-punishable crime and the roundtable discussion worked to develop one unified law to submit to parliament.

On February 22, 2009, Al-Sharq reported that a female member of the Egyptian parliament had submitted a draft law to amend the provision of the law on marriage documentation, in an effort to confine the spread of customary marriages. This amendment would provide punishment of imprisonment and/or a monetary fine of the married couple and their witnesses for those married under customary law.

Customary law marriage is currently considered legal under Islamic law, and simply requires a man and a woman to make an agreement on paper without registering the marriage in the courts or making it public. Many young Egyptians effectuate customary law marriages in secret to have legitimate intercourse, and older widows’ do the same in order to receive their dead husbands’ retirement salaries, which would be terminated if they officially re-married.

Unfortunately, this type of “secret” marriage often proves to be a disadvantage for the female, as she has no legal ability to make claims against her husband. The proposed draft law would protect women by making it obligatory for couples to obtain a medical certificate from a Ministry of Health agency confirming that they do not have any diseases.

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Djibouti

Ratification:

Djibouti ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on October 31, 1994 and the Optional Protocol on February 2, 2005.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Djibouti made no reservations to CEDAW.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

Since its ratification of CEDAW in 1994, Djibouti has yet to submit an official periodic report to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”). In 2007, the Committee sent a reminder letter to Djibouti requesting that they submit an official report.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, no shadow report has been submitted regarding the implementation of CEDAW in Djibouti.

Recent Updates:

In its June 2004 National Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action, Djibouti expressed its commitment to developing a national committee to oversee the application of CEDAW.

The United Nations Development Programme Gender and Citizenship Initiative has reported on the current status of women in Djibouti. Although women are granted equality under Djibouti’s law, extensive discrimination persists in society and few women take part in public life. Women’s personal status is ruled by customary law, which is based on traditional Islamic law, and disadvantages women in areas of travel, divorce and inheritance. When problems do arise, women do not generally feel comfortable taking their legal issues to court.

In the government and business sectors, women are rarely present. Although the President announced in 1999 the creation of a Ministry of Women’s, Family, and Social Affairs, women only make up an estimated 32.3 percent of the work force. Women face many substantial social and economic challenge – famine, poverty, and regional conflict have created difficulties for both women’s groups and the government in improving the status of women in society. Women suffer greatly in terms of education, with high drop-out rates for girls in secondary school and only 30% of girls enrolled in primary school. A weak health care system also affects women adversely, particularly in terms of maternity care services.

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Comoros

Ratification:

Comoros ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on October 31, 1994.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Comoros made no reservations to CEDAW.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

Since its ratification of CEDAW in 1994, Comoros has yet to submit an official periodic report to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”). In 2007, the Committee criticized Comoros for not having submitted its initial report in over 20 years since its ascension. The Committee requested that Comoros submit its report in June 2009.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, no shadow report has been submitted regarding the implementation of CEDAW in Comoros.

Recent Updates:

Women in Comoros face difficulties in a number of facets of life, most prominently in terms of participation in the public sphere. In the government, there is currently only one woman out of 33 total parliament members and one female cabinet minister. While women in urban areas are able to find jobs easily, women in rural areas suffer discrimination related to education opportunities and wage discrepancies.

In 2002, the U.N. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices commended Comoros, noting that domestic violence against women was a rare occurrence and that, in general, inheritance and property rights are not discriminatory towards women. Although women can seek protection in cases of domestic violence from the courts, these issues are generally dealt with at the local or family level.

The occurrence of early marriages is a concern in Comoros, particularly when young women are forced to marry older men. Comoran law states that 18 is the age of marriage for girls, and 22 for boys. Though cases of forced marriage are not well-documented, it is known that many young Comoran girls are forced to give up their education in lieu of marriage and a life of subservience to their male relatives.

Nevertheless, there are individuals working on the ground to promote women’s rights. Comoros has a ministry specific to women’s issues and their advancement as well as the WEMA Association, a women’s organization, which was founded in 1997.

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Bahrain

Access to Report of the working group on the universal periodic review-Bahrain (Arabic)

Ratification:

Bahrain ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”) on June 18, 2002.

Reservations:

Upon ratification, Bahrain made reservations to the following CEDAW articles: 2, 9:2, 15:4, 16, and 29:1 as described in detail below.

  • Article 2, in order to ensure its implementation within the bounds of the provisions of the Islamic Shariah;
  • Article 9, paragraph 2;
  • Article 15, paragraph 4;
  • Article 16, in so far as it is incompatible with the provisions of the Islamic Shariah; and
  • Article 29, paragraph 1.

Summary of Official CEDAW Reports:

Since its ratification of CEDAW in 2002, Bahrain has submitted official reports to the CEDAW Committee (“Committee”) on two occasions. The combined first and second report was released in November 2007 and the combined fifth, sixth and seventh report came out in June 2008.

In response to the most recent report, the Committee released comments in November 2008 regarding Bahrain’s progress in implementing CEDAW as well as the areas of concerns. The Committee commended Bahrain for its submission of additional information containing new data and statistics, as well as the written replies to the list of issues and questions raised by the pre-session working group, but noted that it lacked references to the Committee’s general recommendations. Bahrain’s high-level and large delegation was appreciated by the Committee, as well as the frank dialogue held between the delegation and the Committee.

A detailed account of progress expressed by the Committee following Bahrain’s report in 2008 as follows:

  • The adoption of the National Strategy for the Advancement of Bahraini Women to promote women’s enjoyment of their rights in all areas, which includes several plans and programs;
  • The establishment of the Supreme Council for Women in 2001 as the national mechanism for the advancement of women;
  • The enactment of Law No. 1 of 2008 on human trafficking, which includes key provisions of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the additional protocols;
  • The establishment within the Supreme Council for Women of a centre with offices in all governorates to receive and act on women’s complaints; and,
  • The institution of several prizes, including the King’s Prize aimed at encouraging Bahraini working women.

A detailed account of recommendations made by the Committee following Bahrain’s report in 2008 as follows:

  • Implement all the provisions of the Convention and views the concerns and recommendations identified in the present concluding comments as requiring the State party’s priority attention between now and the submission of the next periodic report.
  • Focus on those areas in its implementation activities and report on action taken and results achieved in its next periodic report, and submit the present concluding comments to all relevant ministries and Parliament so as to ensure their full implementation.
  • Encourage its national Parliament in line with its procedures, where appropriate, to take the necessary steps with regard to the implementation of these concluding observations and the Government’s next reporting process under the Convention.
  • Take steps to incorporate the definition of discrimination against women as contained in article 1 of the Convention, into domestic legislation.
  • Continue to conduct its awareness-raising campaigns on the Convention and the work of the Committee and provide training for judges and the legal profession.
  • Intensify its efforts and take all necessary steps for the withdrawal of all its reservations to the Convention so as to ensure that women in Bahrain benefit from all the provisions enshrined in the Convention.
  • Continue to support the Supreme Council for Women and ensure that it can effectively implement its mandate, and strengthen its cooperation with all stakeholders, including non-governmental organizations.
  • Adopt and implement, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1 of the Convention, temporary special measures, in particular in the field of participation of women in public life and in the area of employment of women, and raise public awareness about the importance of temporary special measures in accelerating the process of the achievement of gender equality.
  • Effectively implement and monitor its national strategic plan, in particular to bring about change in the widely accepted stereotypical roles of women and men by promoting equal sharing of family responsibilities between women and men
  • Address awareness-raising campaigns to both women and men and that the media be encouraged to project a positive image of women and the equal status and responsibilities of women and men in the private and public spheres.
  • Implement the recommendations identified in the study on violence against women and monitor their impact, and enact legislation on violence against women, including domestic violence. Specifically, revise relevant provisions of the Penal Code so as to ensure that all forms of domestic violence, including marital rape, are criminalized and that marriage to the victim does not exempt perpetrators of rape from prosecution.
  • Offer training and awareness-raising programs to judicial personnel, law enforcement officials, members of the legal and health professions, community leaders and the general public, taking into account its general recommendation No. 19 on violence against women.
  • Strengthen its collaboration with civil society and non-governmental organizations with respect to violence against women to ensure the understanding that all forms of violence, including domestic violence, are unacceptable.
  • Effectively implement the recently adopted law on human trafficking and introduce and implement a strategy that includes measures of prevention, prosecution and punishment of offenders, as well as measures to protect and rehabilitate victims and reintegrate them into society.
  • Increase its efforts in regard to international, regional and bilateral cooperation with countries of origin, transit and destination to prevent trafficking through information exchange, and carefully monitor the impact of measures taken and provide information on the results achieved as well as statistical data in its next periodic report.
  • Take all appropriate measures, including temporary special measures under article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention to establish concrete goals to accelerate the increase of women in the Council of Representatives and Municipal Councils, and encourage political parties to use quotas.
  • Continue to undertake awareness-raising campaigns about the importance of women’s participation in decision-making at all levels.
  • Take all necessary steps to expedite the adoption of the draft Nationality Law in order to comply with article 9 of the Convention, and to withdraw its reservation to article 9, paragraph 2.
  • Enhance its compliance with article 10 and continue raising awareness of the importance of education for the empowerment of women as well as take steps to overcome traditional attitudes which constitute obstacles to the education of girls and women, and
  • Actively encourage girls and women to choose non-traditional education and professions.
  • Take all appropriate measures to expedite the adoption of the draft labor code, and to ensure that it covers all migrant domestic workers, as well as strengthen its efforts to ensure that migrant domestic workers have adequate legal protection, are aware of their rights and have access to legal aid.
  • Take appropriate measures to ensure that women can consent to Caesarean-section procedures and the medical treatment without the consent and/or authorization of any other person, including that of their husbands.
  • Take note of general recommendations No. 21 on equality in marriage and family relations and No. 24 on women and health (article 12 of the Convention), and undertake systematic awareness-raising among women on the importance of regular medical examination to facilitate early detection of breast and cervical cancer.
  • Take, as a matter of priority, all necessary measures, including through awareness-raising campaigns among all sectors of the society, particularly traditional leaders, religious clerics, the media and civil society, on the importance of adopting a unified family law which provides women with equal rights.
  • Raise the minimum age of marriage of girls from 15 to 18, and take all appropriate measures to end the practice of polygamy, in accordance with the Committee’s general comment No. 21 on equality in marriage and family relations.
  • Conduct a study on the economic consequences of divorce on both spouses and to adopt legislative measures to remedy possible adverse effects of existing rules of property distribution.
  • Widely disseminate in Bahrain the present concluding observations in order to make the people, including Government officials at the national and local levels, politicians, parliamentarians and women’s and human rights organizations, aware of the measures that have been taken to ensure de jure and de facto equality of women, as well as the further steps that are required in this regard.
  • Ratify the treaties to which it is not yet a party, namely the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.
  • Provide to the Committee, within two years, written information on the steps undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 30 and 38, and consider seeking technical cooperation and assistance, including advisory services, if necessary and when appropriate for implementation of the above recommendations.

Summary of Shadow Reports:

To date, one shadow report has been submitted regarding the progress of the implementation of CEDAW in Bahrain. This report was presented by member associations of the Bahrain Women’s Union and other national parties in 2008.

The shadow report highlighted the fact that although Bahrain’s ratification of CEDAW is considered an achievement, the reality of women continues to be tarnished with some shortcomings since many of the Convention’s articles remain distant from actual implementation. The shadow report focused on the following areas of concern regarding women’s rights and implementation of CEDAW in Bahrain: the absence of the Personal Status Law, the Citizenship Law, the Law for Initiating Political Rights, and the Penalties Law.

The shadow report noted the number of problematic social, cultural and political issues that continue to influence the enactment of a fair personal status law. The case is similar for the Citizenship Law, and the right of women to give their citizenship to their children. As for women’s right to participation in public life, including political, economic and decision-making, involvement rates remain low, and in some cases non-existent. It is therefore necessary for Bahrain to take concrete actual steps towards officially establishing and fulfilling the principle of equality and non-discrimination for women.

Recent Updates:

In November 2008, Egalité sans Réserve, Bahrain Women’s Union, Bahrain Center for Human Rights, Bahrain Human Rights Society and International Federation for Human Rights distributed a press release urging Bahrain to undertake measures to combat discrimination against women, as recommended by their recent shadow report and the CEDAW Committee. Due to the absence of a unified Family Law, Bahraini women are exposed to discrimination in family matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and custody of children.

The press release recommended that the Bahrain government do the following in accordance with the Committee’s comments: raise public awareness for the need to unify the Family Code; adopt legislation to criminalize all forms of violence, including marital rape; take measures to end polygamy; raise the minimum age of marriage of girls; protect women migrant domestic workers; make increased efforts to combat trafficking; enact concrete measures to increase representation of women in public and political life: develop a law to allow women to transfer their nationality to their children; and, withdraw all reservations to CEDAW.

On March 2, 2009, the Khaleej Times published an article that discussed the campaign to demand equal nationality rights for Bahraini women, as the CEDAW Committee suggested in their 2008 comments to Bahrain’s periodic report. The announcement of the campaign was made by the Bahrain’s Women Union in an effort to address the approximately 2,000 stateless children of Bahraini women married to foreigners. Maraim Al Ruwai, President of the Union, urged all sufferers to sign the petition because the outdated law goes against CEDAW.

The petition will request that the government amend article 4 of the nationality law, and call for an immediate solution to the resident permit issue of children and husbands of Bahraini women married to foreigners. It was noted that the Supreme Council for Women has looked into the issue of nationality through high-profile cases seeking an exception from the Ministry of Interior, but the rest of the women remain victims.

On March 3, 2009, the AFP reported that the Bahrain Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Suzan Mubarak’s International Women’s Movement for Peace had organized, in cooperation with the United Nations, an international conference regarding trafficking in people. 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